Friday, January 7, 2011

Smoking for health hazard

Clean and
Healthy Behavior, which
became the basic needs of
public health degrees, one of its
aspects is "not a family member
who smokes." While clean and
healthy lifestyle should be my
duty and health volunteers to
Each time you inhale cigarette
smoke, whether intentionally
or not, it means also suck more
than 4,000 kinds of toxins!
Therefore, smoking the same
by including the toxins were
into the oral cavity and lungs of
course. Smoking harm the
health, the fact is we can not
deny. Many diseases have
proven to be harmful effects of
smoking, either directly or
indirectly. The smoking habit is
not only detrimental to the
smoker, but also for those
around .
When This number of smokers,
especially adolescent smokers
continue to grow, particularly in
developing countries. This
situation is a serious challenge
for efforts to improve
community health status. Even
the world health organization
(WHO) has warned that in the
decade from 2020 to 2030
tobacco will kill 10 million
people per year, 70% of them
occur in developing countries.
Through resolution 1983, the
World Health Organization
(WHO) has set 31 May as World
Tobacco Free Day every year.
Dangers of smoking to health
body has been researched and
proven by many people.
Adverse effects of smoking
was already known for certain.
Many studies have shown that
smoking increases the risk of
various diseases. Such as heart
disease and blood vessel
disorders, lung cancer, oral
cavity cancer, laryngeal cancer,
osefagus cancer, bronchitis,
high blood pressure, impotence,
and pregnancy disorders and
defects in the fetus.
Recent research also shows the
dangers of secondhand-smoke,
that cigarette smoke inhaled by
people for non-smokers around
smokers, or commonly referred
to as passive smokers.
Cigarettes must not be
separated from raw materials
of manufacture, namely
tobacco. In Indonesia, tobacco
plus clove and other ingredients
are mixed to make clove
cigarettes. Besides cigarettes,
tobacco can also be used as
hand-rolled cigarettes,
cigarettes, cigars, tobacco
pipes, and smokeless tobacco
(chewing tobacco or chewing
Gas component of cigarette
smoke is carbon monoxide,
ammonia, acid hidrosianat,
nitrogen oxides, and
formaldehyde. Particle form of
tar, indole, nicotine, karbarzol,
and cresol. These substances
are toxic, irritating, and cause
cancer (carcinogens).
Substances most frequently
discussed and researched
people, poison the body's
nerves, increase blood pressure,
cause constriction of peripheral
blood vessels, and cause
addiction and dependence on
the wearer. Levels of 4-6 mg of
nicotine inhaled by adults every
day can make a person
addicted. In the United States,
white cigarettes on the market
had higher levels of 8-10 mg of
nicotine per stem, while in
Indonesia, 17 mg nicotine yield
per stem.
Lead generated by a cigarette
of 0.5 ug. A packet of cigarettes
(20 cigarettes contents) which
sucked out in one day will
generate 10 ug. While the
danger threshold of lead that
enters the body is 20 mcg per
day. It is conceivable, when a
heavy smoker smoked an
average of 2 packs of cigarettes
per day, how many of these
harmful substances into the
GAS carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon Monoxide has a strong
tendency to bind to
hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Supposedly, this hemoglobin
binds with oxygen which is
essential for respiration of body
cells, but because the CO gas is
stronger than oxygen, the CO
gas is captured place "in the"
hemoglobin. Be, hemoglobin
coupled with CO gas. CO gas
levels in the blood of
nonsmokers is less than 1
percent, while the blood of
smokers to reach 4-15 percent.
Many times over!
Tar is a collection of thousands
of chemicals in the solid
component of cigarette smoke,
and is a carcinogen. At the time
of cigarettes smoked, the tar
into the oral cavity as a dense
vapor. Once cool, it will become
solid and form a brown
precipitate on the surface of
the teeth, respiratory tract, and
lungs. Precipitation varies
between 3-40 mg per cigarette,
while the levels of tar in
cigarettes range from 24-45
Smoking can cause changes in
the structure and function of
airway and lung tissue. In large
airways, mucous cells enlarge
(hypertrophy) and mucus gland
multiply (hyperplasia). In small
airways, there was mild
inflammation due to increased
cell constriction and mucus
buildup. In lung tissue, an
increase in the number of
inflammatory cells and damage
to the alveoli.
Due to changes in the anatomy
of the airways, in smokers there
will be changes in lung function
with all kinds of clinical
symptoms. This became the
main basis of the occurrence of
chronic pulmonary obstructive
disease (PPOM). It says smoking
is the leading cause of
occurrence of PPOM, including
pulmonary emphysema,
chronic bronchitis, and asthma.
The relationship between
smoking and lung cancer have
been studied in 4-5 decades.
Found a strong association
between cigarette smoking,
particularly cigarettes, with the
incidence of lung cancer. Some
even expressly stated that the
cigarettes as the main cause of
lung cancer.
Cigarette smoke particles, such
as benzopiren, dibenzopiren,
and urethane, known as a
carcinogen. Tar is also
associated with risk of cancer.
Compared with nonsmokers,
the possibility arises of lung
cancer in smokers reach 10-30
times more frequently.
Many studies have shown a link
smoking with coronary heart
disease (CHD). Of the 11 million
deaths per year in industrialized
countries, the WHO reports that
more than half (6 million) due to
blood circulation disorders, in
which 2.5 million are coronary
heart disease and 1.5 million are
stroke. MOH survey in 1986 and
1992, have increased mortality
from heart disease from 9.7
percent (ranked third) to 16
percent (ranked first).
Smoking is a major factor
causing the heart blood vessel
disease. Not just cause of
coronary heart disease, smoking
is also bad for the brain and
peripheral blood vessels.
Diembuskan smoke that
smokers smoke can be divided
into primary (main stream
smoke) and smoke the side (side
stream smoke). The main smoke
is tobacco smoke is inhaled
directly by smokers, while the
next smoke is tobacco smoke
spread into the free air, which
will be inhaled by another
person or passive smoking.
It has been found 4000
different chemicals in
cigarettes, with 40 species of
which are carcinogenic (can
cause cancer), in which the toxic
material is mostly found on the
side smoke such as carbon
monoxide (CO) 5 times more
common in addition to smoke
than The main smoke,
benzopiren 3 times, and
ammonia 50 times. These
materials can last up to several
hours in a room after smoking
Generally the focus of research
aimed at the role of nicotine
and carbon monoxide. Both
these materials, in addition to
increased oxygen demand, also
disrupt the oxygen supply to
the heart muscle (myocardium)
to the detriment of myocardial
Nicotine interfere with the
sympathetic nervous system
due to increased myocardial
oxygen demand. Besides
causing addiction of smoking,
nicotine also stimulates the
release of adrenaline, increased
heart rate, blood pressure,
cardiac oxygen demand, and
cause heart rhythm
disturbances. Nicotine also
affect the nerves, brain, and
many other body parts.
Nicotine activate platelets, with
the consequent emergence of
platelet adhesion (clotting) into
the blood vessel wall.
Carbon monoxide causes
desaturasi hemoglobin,
reducing the direct supply of
oxygen to tissues throughout
the body including the
myocardium. CO replaces the
oxygen in hemoglobin,
interfering with the release of
oxygen, and accelerated
atherosclerosis (calcification /
thickening of artery walls).
Thus, CO reduce physical
exercise capacity, increased
blood viscosity, making it easier
for blood clotting.
Nicotine, CO, and other
materials found in cigarette
smoke damage the
endothelium (inner wall of
blood vessels), and facilitate
the emergence of blood
clotting. In addition, cigarette
smoke affect the lipid profile.
Compared with nonsmokers,
total cholesterol, LDL
cholesterol, and triglyceride
blood of smokers is higher,
whereas HDL cholesterol is
Smoking is proven to be the
biggest risk factor for sudden
The risk of coronary heart
disease increased by 2-4 times
in smokers compared with
nonsmokers. This risk increases
with age and number of
cigarettes smoked. Research
shows that smoking risk factors
work synergistically with other
factors, such as hypertension,
fat content or high blood sugar,
on the outbreak of CHD.
Please note that the risk of
death from coronary heart
disease decreases by 50
percent in the first year after
smoking was stopped. Result
clotting (thrombosis) and
calcification (atherosclerosis),
blood vessel walls, smoking
would obviously damage the
blood vessels peripheral.
PPDP involving the arteries and
veins in the leg or arm is often
found in young adult heavy
smoker, often will end up with
Blockage of blood vessels of
the brain that are sudden or
stroke associated with smoking
a lot. Risk of stroke and death
risk higher in smokers compared
with nonsmokers.
In a study conducted in the
United States and Britain, found
smoking habits increase the
likelihood of the emergence of
AIDS in people with HIV. In the
group of smokers, AIDS arise on
average in 8.17 months,
whereas in the group of
nonsmokers arise after 14.5
months. The decline in smokers
become immune trigger more
easily exposed to AIDS so that
quitting smoking is important in
defense measures against AIDS.
Now more and more studied and
reported adverse effect of
smoking on pregnant women,
impotence, decreased immune
individuals, including in people
with viral hepatitis,
gastrointestinal cancer, and
others. From the point of health
economics, the impact of
diseases caused by smoking
would certainly add to the cost,
both for individuals, families,
corporations, even countries.
Diseases caused by smoking
affects the provision of
manpower, especially skilled
workers or executive staff, with
sudden death or disability
arising obvious cause big losses
for the company. Decrease in
labor productivity raises the
company's earnings decline,
also the economic burden is not
small for individuals and
families. Expenditures for
health care costs increase,
families, corporations, and
It's supposed efforts to stop
smoking is the duty and
responsibility of all levels of
society. Business information
and counseling, particularly
among the younger generation,
can also be associated with
business overcoming the
dangers of narcotics, health
business school, and
community health education in
Community role model figures,
including officials, religious
leaders, teachers, health
workers, artists, and sportsmen,
it is fitting to set an example by
not smoking. It should also limit
the opportunity to smoke in
public places, schools, public
transport, and workplace;
regulation and control of
cigarette promotional
advertising; put health warnings
on cigarette packs and cigarette
Climate not smoking should be
created. This should be
implemented simultaneously
by all of us, who want the state
and nation achieve a healthy
and prosperous Indonesia.
Chronicles of the most serious
result from the use of nicotine
is addictive. Once a person
becomes a smoker, it will be
difficult to end the practice
both physically and
psychologically. Smoking
becomes a compulsive habit,
starting with the ceremonial
lighting a cigarette and exhaled
smoke that made repeatedly.
Because the addictive nature
(making a person become
addicted to) cigarette in the
Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM IV) are grouped into
Nicotine Related Disorders.
While the WHO classify it as a
form of addiction.
Pharmacologic and behavioral
processes that determine
tobacco addiction similar to
processes that lead to addiction
to drugs such as heroin and
Nicotine has a characteristic
affect brain dopamine with the
same process as these drugs. In
order psychoactive properties
of addictive substances,
nicotine is more addictive than
heroin cause, cocaine, alcohol,
caffeine and marijuana.
According to Flemming, Glyn
and Ershler smoking is an early
stage to become abusers of
drugs (drug abuse). Try smoking
is significantly open
opportunities using illegal drugs
in the future.
Based on known
epidemiological data
approximately 20% of smokers
have a risk eight times become
drug abusers, and the risk
eleven times to be heavy
drinkers than those who do not
smoke. Special attention on this
issue is associated with an
increased number of teenage
Addressing the problem of
smoking habits in adolescents is
expected to prevent problems
that would arise in the future
related to these habits, one of
which is the prevention of drug
abuse. According to Teddy
Hidayat, Psychiatry Specialist,
Youth at high risk are teenagers
who have immediate
pemuasaan nature, less able to
delay the desire, feel empty
and easily bored, anxious,
nervous, and depressive.
An understanding of smoking
habits and tendencies
characteristic personality will
greatly help efforts to stop
these harmful habits. For the
prevention of smoking habits in
children and adolescents.
Parents and teachers play a
major role to supervise, provide
the right information and the
most important examples of
individual behaviors do not
become addicted to smoking
Smoking is closely associated
with disability and decreased
quality of life. In a study in
Germany since the year
1997-1999 which involved 4181
respondents, concluded that
the respondents who have
nicotine dependence have a
worse quality of life, and nearly
50% of respondents smokers
have at least one type of
psychiatric disorders. Also note
that mental patients more
likely to become smokers, ie in
50% of people with mental
disorders, 70% of patients
seeking treatment maniakal
outpatient and 90% of patients
seeking treatment skizrofen
Berdasaran study from CASA
(Columbian University `s
National Center On Addiction
and Substance Abuse),
adolescent smokers have twice
the risk of experiencing
symptoms of depression than
adolescents who do not smoke.
The active smokers were more
likely having a panic attack than
those who do not smoke Many
studies prove that smoking and
depression is an interrelated
relationship. Depression causes
people to smoke and smokers
usually have symptoms of
depression and anxiety
Most people with depression
said they had smoked in his life.
History of depression was
related to the presence or
absence of withdrawal
symptoms (withdrawal) of
nicotine when a person decides
to quit smoking. As many as
75% of patients with depression
who try to quit smoking
experience withdrawal
symptoms drug. This is
certainly related to the
increasing number of business
failures to quit smoking and
relapses in patients with
In addition, nicotine withdrawal
symptoms similar to symptoms
of depression. However, it was
reported that the withdrawal
symptoms experienced by
patients with depression are
more physical symptoms such
as reduced concentration, sleep
disturbance, fatigue and weight
Nicotine as a drug of psychiatric
disorders smoking as a form of
therapy for psychiatric
disorders is still a controversial
debate. Psychiatric disorders
can cause a person to smoking
and smoking can cause
psychiatric disorders, although
very few in number, about 70%
of smokers do not have
symptoms of mental disorder.
In general, smoking may cause
increased concentrations,
suppress hunger, reduce
anxiety, and depression. In
some studies nicotine is shown
to be effective for the
treatment of depression.
Basically nicotine provides a
promising opportunity for use
as a psychoactive drug.
However, nicotine has a very
narrow terapheutic index, which
ranges between the right dose
for therapeutic and toxic doses
is very narrow.
So think about some form of
nicotine is not in pure form but
in the form of analogues.
However, the thought of
nicotine as a drug is not in the
form of smoking. As with
morphine which is used as a
powerful analgesic (pain barrier)
, his gift must be in a doctor's
supervision. Gravity, this time
nicotine can be obtained freely
and easily in a cigarette, this
needs to be aware because
smoking does not necessarily
become a justification for the
treatment of symptoms of
psychiatric disorders.
Studies on smoking and
reproductive conducted
throughout the 2 decades that
concluded that smoking can
cause damage to the
reproductive system one starts
from puberty until adulthood
In a study conducted by Dr..
Sinead Jones, director of The
British Medical Association's
Tobacco Control Resource
Centre, found that women who
smoke have a relatively small
chance to get a descent.
men will have 2 times the risk of
infertility (infertile) and runs
the risk of DNA damage in sperm
cells. While the results of
research on pregnant women
increased incidence of
miscarriage. The study said that
from 3000 to 5000 incidence of
miscarriages per year in the UK,
closely linked to smoking.
120,000 men in England aged
between 30 sampai50 years
experience impotence due to
smoking. Even worse, smoking
has implications for 1200 cases
of cervical cancer per year.
Women who smoke are very
likely to begin menopause
before age 45 years and also
make them face the risk of
osteoporosis and heart disease,
Norwegian researchers report.
"Among many as 2123 women
aged 59 to 60 years, those who
currently smoked, 59% more
likely to experience premature
menopause compared with
women who do not smoke," said
Dr. Thea F. Mikkelsen of the
University of Oslo and
For the heaviest smokers, the
risk of early menopause was
nearly doubled. However,
women who used to smoke, but
quit at least 10 years before
menopause, were substantially
less likely to stop menstruating
compared with smokers before
age 45.
There is evidence that smoking
later in life makes a woman
more likely to experience
premature menopause, while
smokers who quit before
middle age may not be
affected, Mikkelsen and his
team in the online journal, BMC
Public Health.
They investigated the
relationship further and
determine whether exposure to
secondhand smoke might also
influence the timing of
menopause. The researchers
found that nearly 10% of
women entering menopause
before age 45.
According Menkessos, this rapid
growth make Indonesia is
expected to reach record,
especially with a variety of
health problems severe
enough, among them related to
smoking. While it is recognized
Menkessos, limiting the activity
of smoking bans in public areas
still could be more assertive.
Although the PP No 81/1999
which was amended by
Regulation 38/2000 on the
Security Cigarettes for Health
has been in force, but also
recognized, law enforcement
was not there so do not have
the strength.
detikcomTingginya target of
cigarette tax revenues that
reached Rp 17 trillion in 2001
assessed budget has caused the
government does not
consistently enforce the
Regulation No.38/2000 on
cigarettes for health security.
Commission VII of the House
urged to regulate cigarettes
were made in the form of law,
so that people will have a fairly
strong bargaining position. In
addition, the House will be able
to conduct rigorous oversight
of government and the tobacco
Food and Drug Monitoring
Agency (BPOM) will take firm
action against tobacco
companies that broadcast
cigarette advertising in
electronic media below at 21:30
local time. "If this warning is not
heeded, BPOM will make efforts
in accordance with legal
regulations in force," he said.
Cigarette ad that violates the
provisions of Regulation No.81
of 1999 on Health and Safety
Cigarettes For PP No.38 of 2000
on Amendment of Regulation
no 81 year 1999 will be subject
to imprisonment of five years
and / or a maximum fine of Rp
100 million. Cigarette tax
receipts in 2000 reached Rp
10.27 trillion, while spending on
health from smoking according
to data from the Directorate
General of Health Department
of POM in the same year
reached Rp 11 trillion.
Several reasons to stop
1. Impotence
Smoking reduces the blood
flow needed to achieve a state
of erection. Because it
tersebutlah cigarettes can
affect penile erection days.
2. Facial wrinkles
Smoking can reduce the flow of
oxygen and nutrients needed
by your skin cells constrict
blood vessels around the face.
So that will cause wrinkles.
3. Stained teeth and bad breath.
Particles from cigarette smoke
can give yellow to brown spots
on your teeth, and this will also
trap odor-producing bacteria in
your mouth. Abnormalities of
the gums and tooth loss are
also more common in smokers.
4. You and around 'the smell.
Cigarette smoking has an
unpleasant smell and stick to
everything, from your skin and
hair to clothes and items around
you. And the smell is
absolutely not an appetizing
couples and friends.
5. Brittle bones
Numerous studies have found
an association between smoking
and osteoporosis in men and
women. A study looked at
cases of hip fracture in elderly
women, and concluded that
one of the 8 cases of fractures
were caused by loss of bone
mass caused by smoking.
6. Depression
Some scientists consider
cigarettes contain substances
that can cause an increase in
mood. Substance is what
usually implies reduced when a
person suffers from depression.
That is also the reason why
people who are stressed or
depressed tend to seek 'escape'
to the cigarette.
7. A bad role model for children.
Every day, dliperkirakan 3000
children in the U.S. who become
addicted to smoking cigarettes.
If they keep smoking, 1,000 of
them will surely die from
diseases related to smoking.
8. Fire
if you're careless, when
smoking fixation and throw
cigarette butts are still lit to
any place can cause a fire.
9. Poor blood circulation
Red blood cells have been
designed by nature to carry
oxygen throughout the body.
In smokers, the oxygen
molecule is replaced by a
component of cigarette smoke,
preventing the transport of
oxygen is essential for cell life.
10. Impressed stupid
If smokers defend its
dependence, there is one truth
that they could not deny: Like
the slogan says, smoking is a
killer. so, if there are those who
continue the habit, it would
look stupid.
Seeing the dangers that can be
inflicted cigarette, presumably
among us need to work
together to do three main
ü Communication and
information about the dangers
of smoking, both for the smoker
direct or passive smoking.
ü Providing special places for
people who smoke for
nonsmokers not exposed to its
negative impact.
ü Do not be reluctant to
reprimand a smoker, if you feel
Here are strategies you can use
to quit smoking:
1. Plan a time to stop
Plan when you will quit smoking
for good. The timing may be
just the next few days or 2
weeks. By the day quit smoking,
you reduce the number of
cigarettes smoked per day.
2. Drugs
Drugs to help reduce the
symptoms of quitting smoking
until the worst effects
exceeded. You have a choice of
either drugs or drug under a
doctor's prescription over-the-
counter (without prescription).
Discuss these options with your
3. Help yourself
In planning and maintaining
your desire to stop smoking,
find information about smoking
and disease caused by a variety
of trusted sources like the
American Cancer Society,
American Lung Association, the
Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention or the local sites
such as Indonesia Cancer
Foundation, Heart Foundation
of Indonesia, the Committee
National Smoking Control
Problems. Help yourself with
the information that convinced
you to stay away from
cigarettes after quitting
4. Support groups
Whether you meet online or a
support group. Seek support
from people who are also trying
to quit smoking.
5. Counseling
Counselling is a meeting face to
face with a trusted physician,
psychologist, nurse or
counselor. The forum will
discuss what are the things that
hinder you to stop smoking and
ways to overcome them.
6. Cold turkey
It is a strategy to quit smoking
immediately. If you choose
cold turkey then you will
experience symptoms of
tobacco withdrawal symptoms,
like all people who quit smoking
as impatient (restlessness),
increased appetite, irritability.
It is recommended that you
seek help when you quit
smoking, whether it be support
or treatment.
7. Sports
Exercise will help you cope with
stress and weight increase after
you quit smoking.
8. Invite a Friend / Family
Ask a friend or family member
who did not smoke to provide
their time if you are
experiencing a difficult period.
9. Alternative Therapy
Some smokers try hypnosis or
acupuncture methods to help
them quit smoking, although
not much is proven successful.
However, if the method is to
make you stop smoking, it
means that matches your
To quit smoking, you need a
personal approach. What works
for others may not be
successful in your
If you are a smoker and plan to
have children, stop smoking
now! (Experts recommend that
you quit smoking at least a
month before conception).
Consult your physician or other
health workers to help
eliminate your smoking habit.
Lots of engineering has to
offer, find the most appropriate
thing to do.
Here are 7 ways to quit smoking
we recommend:
1. Clean up and discard. Clean
up and dispose of all the
cigarettes you have.
2. Make a note and a warning.
Write a note such as "You are
now non-smokers" and stick to
the places that you visit
frequently - in bed, the table
3. Do it continuously. Stay quit
smoking on the day you
specified to do so. Do not do it
to falter.
4. Focus on daily work to divert
the desire to smoke.
5. Think positive. Think of
yourself as a nonsmoker. If
there is an offer smoking from
friends, tell your friends it
firmly "I do not smoke."
6. Ask for support from family,
close friends and fellow
workers to help you get rid of
this smoking habit.
7. Resist the urge to smoke:
Divert attention when you
want to smoke. Say to yourself
"Later!" And do other positive
Sigh. Pull a long breath for five
seconds and release slowly.
Drink plenty of water. Avoid
beverages containing caffeine
such as coffee, tea or cola.
Busy yourself with activities.
This is important so that you do
not always think to smoke.
Activities that could be done
for example gardening, reading
books and so on.
Doing exercise at least three
times a week for 20 minutes
each session.
Wash hands or shower when
you want to smoke.
Chew something like chewing
gum, etc..
Pray that you are given the
strength and desire that remain
to quit smoking
At first quit smoking requires a
very severe struggle. Do not be
surprised if there are signs such
as irritability, difficulty
controlling feelings, lack of
concentration, anxiety,
insomnia, cough, decreased
pulse rate, and increases
appetite. This phase is called
the phase of withdrawal. Will
disappear after three to four

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