Tuesday, March 15, 2011


Staple food is always whether
you eat every day, rice? Indeed
dsaat community is more
familiar with the types of food
grains this. However, actually
there are many other foods
that have nutritional value is
not less than rice. So a big meal
does not have rice, there are
plenty of other foods.
Actually one of the
government also, in the past let
the rice / white rice as a staple
food popularized the best. The
government itself did
intensification of rice
agriculture in order to self-
sufficiency in rice. As a result
people began to leave the
original staple foods they
consume, such as corn, sago,
cassava, and others.
Now the people of Indonesia
has been dependent on rice and
assume if you have not eaten
rice is not eaten. Source of
other carbohydrates such as
bread, sweet potatoes,
noodles, rice noodles, potatoes,
maize, tubers, taro, cassava,
including macaroni, spaghetti,
and various pasta - Western
food - which is now more
popular it is still considered just
a distraction or a booster food
hungry before eating rice.
It should be recognized now
more and more citizens of our
society who are used to eating
white bread for a main meal at
breakfast. However, according
to Prof. DR. Made Astawan, MS,
there are many sources of
carbohydrates are eligible to be
considered as a substitute for
Perhaps the first thing people
need to be improved is the
perception that the food they
make full and appropriate at
the tongue was not just white
rice. The hope, parents can
socialize keanegaragaman
staple food to the children,
considering the formation of
tastes and eating habits starting
Here you can see a number of
staple food found in Indonesia,
with descriptions of content
that is not less good nutrition
than white rice.
Explained Prof. Made, potatoes
included in the five major
groups of staple foods of the
world other than wheat, corn,
rice, and wheat. As a source of
carbohydrates, potatoes also
contain vitamins and minerals is
quite high. Carbohydrate
content of potatoes about 18
per cent, protein 2.4 percent
and 0.1 percent fat. The total
energy obtained from 100
grams of potatoes about 80
Compared to rice,
carbohydrate, protein, fat, and
lower energy potatoes.
However, when compared with
other tubers such as cassava,
sweet potato, and taro,
nutrient composition of
potatoes are still relatively
Potatoes are the only type of
bulbs that are rich in vitamin C,
levels at 31 milligrams per 100
grams of potatoes. Other
tubers are very poor in vitamin
C. Other vitamins that are
prominent enough niacin and
thiamine (vitamin B1).
Potatoes also contain various
minerals such as calcium (26
mg/100 g), phosphorus (49 mg
per 100 g), iron (1.1 mg/100 g),
and potassium (449 mg/100 g).
While the sodium content is
very low, namely 0.4 mg/100
The ratio of potassium to
sodium is high on the potato is
very beneficial for health,
particularly in preventing
disease high blood pressure
Not many people know that
Indonesia is the largest country
that has sago groves. According
to Prof. Made, sago palm is
native to Southeast Asia with
the largest planting area in
Appropriate, with the widest
area, sago can be done by the
food staple, Indonesia.
Unfortunately, only a certain
area that makes the sago as a
staple food.
As a source of energy,
equivalent sago rice, maize,
cassava, potato, and wheat
flour. Sago can be used as a
potential food source of
carbohydrate because it implies
quite high at 84.7 grams per 100
grams of material.
Carbohydrate content is also
equivalent to that contained in
rice flour, cassava, and
Compared with corn flour and
wheat flour, corn starch
carbohydrate content is
relatively higher. Energy
content in 100 grams sago flour
is 353 calories.
Unfortunately, sago including
food very poor in protein. Sago
flour protein content of only
0.7 g/100 g of material, much
lower than rice flour, corn, and
wheat. Judging from the levels
of vitamins and minerals too,
sago have lower levels
compared with other staple
Realizing the potential of sago
that is not as complete nutrition
and other basic foodstuffs as
well, sago should be consumed
together with other ingredients
better nutritional content.
The concept of diversification
of food consumption such as
that which has been practiced
by traditional people of Maluku
and Papua. They combine the
sago with fish (as a source of
protein) and various vegetables
(as a source of vitamins,
minerals, antioxidants, and fiber
Papeda sago is processed foods
from which a daily meal in rural
areas of Maluku and Papua.
Nutritious and healthy food can
be eaten hot or cold in a state,
such as Ongol-Ongol.
"The concept of diversification
of food consumption that is not
just rely on one type of food
such as rice, as is done in the
form papeda, should be
emulated and exemplified by
communities in other areas,"
says Prof. Made.
It is important to increase food
availability, food quality, ease
of getting food, and
simultaneously improve the
food security of Indonesia. This
way will make Indonesia an
independent in food
No need to worry about the
nutritional value papeda. The
fact is that people who eat
papeda pauknya complete with
side dishes, never face the
problem of nutrient deficiency.
Tuber Garut
This tuber has nothing to do
with the city of Garut. "The
word is derived from arrowroot
arrowroot which means that
plants that have root rhizome
(bulb) is shaped like a bow," says
Prof. Made.
If the language of the
Caribbean, arrowroot plant is
called ararute, which means
starchy root. Indeed, the main
content of tubers of arrowroot
is a carbohydrate that can be
processed into flour.
Umbi garut ini memiliki tekstur
lembut dan mudah dicerna.
That's why the bulbs are highly
recommended to be consumed
by those who are recovering
from illness. Also suitable child
consumed with Asperger's
High levels of carbohydrates
and energy make arrowroot
tubers can be used instead of
carbohydrates. Relatively low
protein content than rice flour
or cornmeal, but equivalent to
the protein sago, cassava flour,
potato flour, cornstarch, and
Low protein flour arrowroot
tubers can disiasati by
combining it with food sources
of protein. In the food industry,
arrowroot starch used as raw
materials porridge (lunkhead),
pancakes, cakes syringe, pretty
sweet, bread, biscuits, cendol,
pudding, chips, noodles, liquid
glucose, as well as baby food.
Arrowroot starch can be used as
a replacement part or whole
wheat flour in the food
industry. In making bread, flour
arrowroot flour could
substitute as much as 10-20
percent, while in the
manufacture of dry noodles,
wheat flour could substitute up
to 15-20 percent.
"Taro also has the potential to
become a staple food in
addition to betas because they
contain carbohydrates and
other nutrients," says the editor
of this GHS experts.
Carbohydrate content of taro is
quite high although not as big as
cassava, rice, and wheat. The
largest component of the
carbohydrate is starch taro
which reached 77.9 percent.
Taro tuber starch consists of
17-28 percent amylose, the
remaining 72-83 percent is
High levels of amylopectin
cause taro is fluffier and sticky
like sticky rice. Another
advantage of taro starch is
easily digested, so suitable for
use as infant food or healing
after illness.
Taro also has better protein
content. These proteins contain
several essential amino acids
even though poor histidine,
lysine, isoleucine, tryptophan,
and methionine. To improve the
quality of protein, taro can be
consumed with beans. Talas
also contains fat, vitamins, and
Like other root crops, taro tuber
also contains oligosaccharides,
especially rafinosa.
Oligosaccharides are not
digested in the small intestine,
but entry into the large
intestine. In the large intestine,
rafinosa fermented by a
number of microflora produce a
variety of gases such as
methane (CH4), carbon dioxide
(C02), and hydrogen (H2).
Accumulation of these gases
cause bloating, so people often
flatulence (farting) after eating
taro. However, the process of
cooking such as boiling, frying,
steaming, or roasting enough to
help reduce rafinosa
compounds in taro.
One of the bulbs that have
strategic value as a substitute
for white rice is cassava. It said
the Professor in the Faculty of
Agricultural Technology, IPB,
cassava tubers contain very
high carbohydrate, about 34-38
grams per 100 grams. Energy
content of 146-157 calories per
100 grams of material.
That is, cassava can be equated
with potatoes, wheat, rice and
even, as a source of
carbohydrate. Unfortunately,
protein content in cassava is
low, so it must be balanced with
the food source of protein
when eating them.
Compared to white cassava,
cassava yellow has the
advantage of provitamin A
content, which in the body is
converted into vitamin A.
Levels of provitamin A in
yellow cassava equivalent to
385 SI of vitamin A per 100
grams, while the white cassava
does not contain vitamin A.
One thing to watch out for the
processing of cassava is the acid
content of cyanide (HCN) which
are toxic. There are four
categories of cassava based on
its HCN content: class which is
not toxic (about 50 mg HCN per
kg fresh tuber), slightly toxic
class (50-80 mg HCN per kg of
fresh tubers, toxic group
(80-100 mg HCN per kg tuber
fresh), and the class of highly
toxic (more than 100 mg HCN
per kg fresh tuber).
Some kind of bitter cassava and
some even contain up to 400
milligrams of cyanide per
kilogram of fresh tubers. The
wash in running water and
adequate heating is very potent
in preventing the formation of
HCN that are toxic. In other
words, if processed properly
and hygienically, no need to
worry about consuming
processed cassava products.
Cassava was delicious. Can be
fried or boiled. Well, even so it
made chips. And know tiwul
cassava can be transformed
into a fairly nutritious.
Cassava became the main food
in the area of ​​Gunung Kidul.
Unfortunately, the position of
cassava began to shift as the
population has begun to get
used to eating rice imported
into the area.
Brown rice
Although both rice, our society
is more than 30 years of leaving
the brown rice and just eat rice
from white rice. New two-three
years of red rice consumption
began to re-popularized as part
of a healthy lifestyle.
Brown rice is healthier because
it is generally crushed or broken
skin, so the epidermis,
commonly called the bran still
attached. Well, the epidermis is
rich in fiber and natural oils.
Fat contained in the epidermis is
essential fats which are crucial
to brain development. Natural
fiber also give full effect and
cleanses the digestive tract. By
doing so, become better
nutrition for the body.
Carbohydrate content of
brown rice of about 77.6 grams
per 100 grams of material.
While brown rice protein
content of about 7.5 grams per
100 grams of material, slightly
higher than white rice, 6.8
grams per 100 grams of
Instead of white rice, brown
rice is superior to vitamin and
mineral content. Brown rice
contains vitamin B1 (thiamin) is
higher than white rice,
respectively 0.21 and 0.12
milligrams per 100 grams of
The most prominent mineral
content in brown rice is the
calcium and phosphorus. Levels
of calcium in the brown rice 16
mg per 100 g and 163 mg
phosphorus per 100 grams of
material. Other minerals found
in red rice is selenium. Selenium
levels in 100 grams of brown
rice 39 micrograms.
Although in the past some of
our communities using corn as a
staple food, now more are
classified as vegetable, or
treated as snacks and processed
into a side dish.
It is becoming increasingly rare
residents of our society that
makes corn as staple food.
While in Western societies, corn
is an alternative staple food.
Perhaps this is our challenge,
make the corn come back as an
alternative staple food.
Maize is the staple food source
of carbohydrate. These foods
contain substances that are
useful for the body as sugar, oil,
fat, potassium, calcium,
phosphorus, zinc (iron), vitamins
A, B1, B6, and C.
Corn is filling, you know. In
order not to get bored, corn can
be processed into various foods
that are unique.
For example, a meatball corn,
pop corn, roasted corn on the
cob or corn that dioles with
margarine. Lezaaat!
No less great with rice, corn can
be used as fodder. Amazingly,
the corn can be grown almost
anywhere in the hemisphere.
Almost in all regions in our
country, especially dry areas,
corn plants are growing well.
When viewed more closely, the
nutritional value of corn is not
less than rice. It said Prof. Made,
the energy contained 100
grams of rice for 360 calories,
equivalent to the energy in
corn. Carbohydrate content of
corn is also largely composed of
starch, thereby filling.
There is one advantage of corn
as a substitute for rice
compared with other
commodities, which tastes
sweet, so it can increase
appetite. The sweet taste of
sugar content in corn caused,
namely around 1-3 percent,
consisting of 57 percent
sucrose contained in the
institution (seed).
Soun and Noodle
Although less popular than
noodles, glass noodles and rice
noodles can still be used as a
source of carbohydrates. The
three types of food can be
interchanged as a staple food in
an effort to diversify food.
In contrast to the noodles that
uses the raw material flour
impar, glass noodles and
vermicelli made from local raw
materials. At first glance, glass
noodles have a shape and size
such as vermicelli. "The
difference, glass noodles made
from rice starch, corn starch,
cassava starch, potato starch,
or other starches, while the
noodles from rice flour," said
Prof. Made Astawan, MS.
Viewed from tilapia nutrition,
glass noodles contains 363
calories per 100 grams, making
the glass noodles is a good
source of energy. Energy
content is similar to vermicelli,
which is 360 calories per 100
grams. This means, both glass
noodles or vermicelli suitable
for use as staple food that is
filling and rich in energy.
What periu remembered for
nutritional composition not
much different with rice, glass
noodles and rice noodles are
not used as a side dish of rice.
Glass noodles and vermicelli
penggant only be used as an
alternative to rice.
although high-carbohydrate,
both of food is low protein
content. Soun containing
protein by 8.7 g, while the
vermicelli 4.7 grams per 100
grams of material. However,
both glass noodles and rice
noodles are high in calcium with
calcium levels higher than
vermicelli glass noodles, which
is 20 mg and 6 mg per 100 grams
of material. Phosphorus
content of glass noodles and
vermicelli is 80 mg and 35 mg
per 100 grams of material.
Glass noodles and vermicelli
nutritional value can be
enhanced by combining various
sources of protein in the
processing, such as eggs, meat,
fish, shrimp, and so forth. To
boost levels of vitamins,
minerals, and fiber, add all
vegetables in glass noodles and
vermicelli dishes.
Oat bread
Compared with rice and noodles
are often eaten, bread wheat,
including better energy
sources. For example, if 100
grams of cooked rice contains
178 calories of energy, and 100
grams of noodles contains 86
kcal, at 100 grams of bread
wheat can reach 248 calories of
energy. In addition to a higher
energy content, fiber content
found on wheat bread is also
better, so it can withstand
hunger longer.
Actually, wheat bread and
white bread is not much
different. Both are derived
from wheat. The difference is,
white bread made from wheat
flour, while whole wheat bread
made from wheat flour.
Wheat flour milling wheat is the
result of the most in
(endosperm), while wheat flour
is whole wheat grain milling
results are only skin deep
discharged, so that a higher
fiber content than white flour.
The original wheat bread is
bread made from 100 percent
wheat flour. Wheat bread of
good quality can be seen from a
dark-colored crumb and a
brown granules derived from
the epidermis of wheat seed. In
addition, the original wheat
bread can also be seen from the
crust of bread (crust), which is
more dark and rough, while
white bread tends to golden
Inlah that make the nutritional
content of wheat bread is
superior compared to white
bread. Fiber content in bread
wheat is almost six times as
much fiber in white bread.
Consumption of 100 grams of
bread wheat, equivalent to four
pieces of bread, contain fiber as
much as 12.2 grams. While 100
grams of white bread contains
only 2.7 grams of fiber, or just
one-sixth of the fiber found in
bread wheat.
In addition, bread wheat has a
carbohydrate and energy
content was slightly lower than
white bread. It's a good cause
wheat bread to maintain ideal
weight. Bread wheat can help
keep hunger longer a result of
the high fiber content.
In Indonesia, the noodles are
very popular with people of
various circles, from children to
senior citizens. The reason is
because the nature of the
noodles are good, practical, and
filling. Mi high carbohydrate
content, thus worthy of being a
source of carbohydrates
instead of rice.
Along with technological
developments and the
increasing awareness of
nutrition, now mi do not only
serve as a supplier of energy,
but also as a source of other
nutrients. Various types of
vitamins and minerals can
difortifikasikan into the noodles,
as is often encountered in the
instant noodle.
Nevertheless, the adequacy of
nutrients can not be fulfilled
only by relying on a pack of
noodles. The combination with
vegetables and protein sources
are needed in order to boost the
nutritional composition
completeness mi.
Unfortunately, there are
several weaknesses in the
instant noodle product.
Generally noodles contain very
little fiber (dietary fiber) as well
as vitamins B and E, although
the composition of the instant
noodle lately been more
complete. Therefore, we still
need to add other materials
from outside, especially
vegetables and protein sources,
for getting better and better
nutritional value.
Keep in mind that no single food
contains all the necessary
nutrients the body in sufficient
quantities. If you want to meet
all the necessary nutrients,
there is no way except by
increasing the diversity of food
eaten daily.
"With a diverse combination of
consumption, nutritional
elements of food will
complement each other. Lack
of nutrients from food that
one, will be covered by other
foodstuffs. Diverse food
consumption will be better for
health, compared with
consumption patterns that rely
on certain single food,
"explained Prof. Made.

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